Category: Museum

Category: Museum

Top 10 things to do in Białystok

Things to do

Top 10 things to do – updated 01 September 2022

There’s a lot to see and do in the city. Here’s our list of the Top 10 things to do in Białystok. Click on the links for further information or to book a tour & buy ticket.

1. Branicki Palace

Built for a man who wanted to be the King of Poland, the Branicki Palace and gardens is a good way to kill a few hours whilst you are in Bialystok. It’s a beautiful palace with impressive gardens, complete with pavilions, sculptures and outbuildings. The gardens are free and are open all year. It is possible to see the interior of the palace, some parts can be accessed for free, other areas require that you purchase a ticket. The palace contains the Museum of the History of Medicine. Białystok is part of an area known as the 'Green Lungs of Poland' for the quality of its air, and this sprawling, 'Planty Park' that occupies over 35 acres near Branicki Palace is the perfect place to enjoy it.

Further information.

2. Girl with a Water Can Mural

Top 10 things to do in Białystok

Painted on the side of the four-storey high building at al Józefa Piłsudskiego 11/4 is a mural of a little girl appearing to water an actual tree and this has become a Białystok icon. The official name for the art is The Legend of Giants, it was pained by Natalia Rak in 2013.

Further information.

3. The History Museum

There are a number of good museums in the city such as The History Museum, which showcases the history of Białystok and Podlasie. A light show featuring a large model of Białystok in its late 18th-century heyday is the highlight of this museum, which is an annex of the Podlasie Museum, which can be found at the Town Hall.

Further information.

4. Cytron Synagogue

Before World War II, Białystok had 60 synagogues serving a population of over 40,000 Jews, or about half of the city's population. Only three synagogue buildings survived the war, one of which was the Cytron Synagogue where the few hundred Białystok Jews who survived the Holocaust worshipped after the war. Today it is a branch of the Podlasie Museum and is used as an art gallery and for special exhibitions.

Further information.

5. Rynek Kościuszki

The main market square and focal point of the city, the Rynek has been rebuilt several times and has an unusual trapezoidal shape. The square houses the Town Hall, which is home to the Podlasie Museum.

6. Ludwik Zamenhof Centre

A cultural institution founded to celebrate the organisation of the 94th World Congress of Esperanto that was held from 25 July to 1 August 2009 in Bialystok. The Zamenhof Centre offers the visitors a permanent exhibition, ‘Bialystok of Young Zamenhof’ and various temporary exhibitions, concerts, film projections, and theatre performances.

Further information.

7. Białystok Cathedral

Białystok Cathedral

Dating from 1905, the grand neo-Gothic brick Roman Catholic cathedral in Białystok is attached to a late-Renaissance parish church dating from 1627 and an 18th-century baroque presbytery. The actual name for the cathedral is The Metropolitan Archcathedral Basilica of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

Further information.

8. Museum of the History of Medicine & Pharmacy

Housed within the Branicki Palace, this museum features historical medical exhibits.

Further information.

9. Orthodox Church of the Holy Spirit

The largest Orthodox church in Poland, which is topped with a cross weighing an impressive 1500kg. The large cross represents Christ, while 12 smaller crosses around it represent the apostles.

Further information.

10. St Nicholas' Orthodox Church

A Byzantine style church built in 1846 with a central cupola.

Further information.

Wooden Churches of Southern Malopolska

Wooden churches

Wooden churches – updated 10 September 2022

The Wooden Churches of Southern Małopolska inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage Site list are located in: Binarowa (ca 1500), Blizne (mid-15th century.), Dębno (1335), Haczów (14th/15th century), Lipnica Murowana (end of 15th century) and Sękowa (1520). They were built using the horizontal log technique and represent outstanding examples of the different aspects of medieval church-building traditions in Roman Catholic culture.

Wooden churches - All Saints Church, Blizne

These old wooden Gothic churches were all located within the historic region of Małopolska in southern and south-eastern Poland and were sponsored by families of nobility as symbols of their prestige.

Horizontal Log Technique

The horizontal log technique was commonplace in Northern and Eastern Europe during the Middle Ages. The wooden church style of the region was Gothic ornament and painted detail and was very different to the style of stone and brick buildings at the time due to the timber construction, structure and form of the churches.

The form of the churches was influenced by the Greco-Catholic and Orthodox presence in the region. They had an extensive spatial structure initially consisting of a rectangular nave and a narrower chancel to the east, usually terminating in a three-sided apse. Chambered towers of post-and-beam construction were added at the west end later on.

Advanced joinery

The standard of joinery was of the highest quality and the use of advanced joinery solutions allowed for a system of roof trusses binding the log structures of the nave and chancel resulting in tall, shingled roofs.

The Wooden Churches of Southern Małopolska all exhibit diverse techniques and styles of workmanship, rich iconography, outstanding artistic quality and boast valuable décors and fittings.

The oldest church is the 15th century church in Haczów, made of fir-wood and covered with shingles.

The church at Binarowa boasts a very precious wall painting depicting scenes from the New Testament and a carved wood figure of Madonna from the 14th century.

The majority of the wooden churches are located in picturesque mountain valleys and the six trails on the Route of Timber Architecture in the Małopolska region are over 1500km long. They feature 232 timber constructions including 123 Roman Catholic churches, 39 Orthodox churches, 25 rural and small-town complexes, and 27 rural architecture museums that comprise 9 skansens and 14 country manors.

Bialowieza Tours (up to 7 people)

Wooden Churches of Southern Malopolska

What to expect from this tour

Participate in this day trip from Krakow and discover wooden churches of southern Poland listed on the UNESCO World Heritage.

This tour includes the service of a private tour guide-driver who will pick you up from your accommodation in Krakow, so you don't have to worry about a thing!

Visit some of the wooden churches of Southern Malopolska located in charming, picturesque villages. Admire the architecture of the temples in Binarowa, Sekowa, Owczary and Ropica. See the idiosyncratic structural solution used in their construction and appreciate the uniqueness of these Gothic buildings.

Wooden Tserkvas Of The Carpathian Region

Wooden Tserkvas

Wooden Tserkvas – updated 10 September 2022

The tserkvas Of The Carpathian Region were built between the 16th and 19th centuries by communities of Orthodox and Greek Catholic faiths. Sixteen tserkvas (churches) are listed by UNESCO of which eight are located in Poland and eight are located in Ukraine.

Wooden Tserkvas - St Michael the Archangel in Smolnik

Complex structures

The tserkvas were built of horizontal logs and were complex structures constructed using distinct building traditions rooted in Orthodox ecclesiastic design interwoven with elements of local tradition. The wooden tserkvas were built on a tri-partite plan surmounted by open quadrilateral or octagonal domes and cupolas with wooden bell towers on the outside and iconostases and polychrome decorations in the inside.

Outside, they had churchyards, gatehouses and graveyards bounded by perimeter walls or fences and gates, often surrounded by trees.

Carpentry skills

Exceptional carpentry skills were required to construct the wooden tserkvas particularly for the complex corner jointing that was required. The tserkvas were raised on wooden sills placed on stone foundations, with wooden shingles covering roofs and walls.

Wooden Tserkvas - St Michael the Archangel in Turzańsk

Poland

The wooden tserkvas in Poland are the Tserkva of St Parascheva in Radruż, the Tserkva of the Birth of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Chotyniec, the Tserkva of St Michael the Archangel in Smolnik, the Tserkva of St Michael the Archangel in Turzańsk (Podkarpackie Voivodeship), the Tserkva of St James the Less in Powroźnik, the Tserkva of the Virgin Mary's Care in Owczary, the Tserkva of St Parascheva in Kwiatoń and the Tserkva of St Michael the Archangel in Brunary Wyżne (Małpolskie Voivodeship).

The 16 churches can be divided into four groups of different ethnographic architectural traditions.

The Tserkvas of the Carpathian Region in Poland and Ukraine were included on the World Heritage List in 2013 during the 37th session of the World Heritage Committee in Phnom Penh (dec. 37 COM 8B.37).

Buildings are available to visitors. The tserkvas in Radruz, Rohatyn and Drohobych are currently used as museums.

Historic Centre of Krakow

Krakow Historic Centre

Historic Centre of Krakow – updated 09 September 2022

The historic centre of Krakow has been featured on UNESCO’s World Heritage List since 1978. Packed full of restaurants, museums, galleries and bars, the medieval layout of the Old Town has not changed for centuries.

Main market square

The heart and focal point of the historic centre of Krakow is its graceful main market square, the largest medieval town square of any European city.

Most visitors to Krakow visit the market square with its Cloth Hall, the Church of the Holy Mary, Wawel Hill and its Royal Castle, Wawel Cathedral with its outstanding Renaissance chapel, the Barbican and St. Florian’s Gate.

Historic Centre of Krakow

Wawel Royal Castle

Wawel Royal Castle and the limestone Wawel Hill are extremely important historical and cultural sites containing one of the most important collection of buildings in Poland. Wawel was once the seat of Polish rulers, the residence of kings and the focal point of many Polish historical events. The hill is a symbol of the Polish nation and has witnessed some of the greatest moments in Polish history. Many Polish kings have been laid to rest below Wawel Cathedral.

Historic Centre of Krakow

Jewish quarter

The Jewish quarter of Kazimierz features a wealth of Jewish heritage with its 16th century cemetery and seven synagogues of which one is now the Jewish Museum.

The historic centre of Krakow was once surrounded by a 3km long defensive wall complete with 46 towers and seven main entrances. Today only a fragment of the old fortifications remains including the Florian Gate, the Barbican and a few towers.

Underground Museum

Beneath the city of Krakow and housed within the underground corridors of the market square, you will find a museum, which showcases how the city looked and felt during the Middle Ages complete with stone roads with potholes made by cartwheels during the 13th century.

Historic Centre of Krakow

Royal Road

The historic centre of Krakow is bisected by the Royal Road, the coronation route traversed by the Kings of Poland. The Route begins at St. Florian’s Church outside the northern flank of the old city walls in the medieval suburb of Kleparz; passes the Barbican of Krakow built in 1499 and enters Stare Miasto through the Florian Gate. It leads down Floriańska Street through the Main Square, and up Grodzka to Wawel, the former seat of Polish royalty overlooking the Vistula River.

Krakow Old Town Tours & Experiences

Miedzyrzecz Reinforced Region

Miedzyrzecz

Miedzyrzecz – updated 31 August 2022

Miedzyrzecz Reinforced Region is a fortification system built between 193 and 1944 located between the Oder and Warta rivers in the Lubusz region. It stretches close to 80km between the cities of Gorzow Wielkopolski and Zielona Gora.

Miedzyrzecz

Built by Nazi Germany with the purpose of protecting the most vital section of the eastern border of Germany, Miedzyrzecz Reinforced Region was a line of 106 reinforced concrete bunkers with 25cm thick walls, steel domes and concrete antitank barriers called “dragon teeth”.

Underground tunnels

21 of the concrete bunkers were connected by a 30 km network of 40m deep underground tunnels containing railway stations, war rooms, workshops, engine rooms, stockrooms and barracks. The whole network of bunkers and underground system of the Miedzyrzecz Reinforced Region were fitted with essential equipment such as lighting, ventilation, plumbing, sewage disposal and communications.

Miedzyrzecz

Miedzyrzecz Reinforced Region remains one of the largest and the most interesting systems of this type in the world today. It is also one of the largest hibernation sites for bats in Europe. Each year over 30,000 of them winter here representing 13 different species.

Today, the Miedzyrzecz Reinforced Region is partially open to the public. Visitors can visit the museum and also choose from five different routes with various levels of difficulty, lengths and duration.

Miedzyrzecz

Short Route – This is the shortest of the routes available to tourists. The duration of the trip is 1.5 hours, while the length of the entire route is approximately 1500 meters.

Long Route – The duration of the trip is 2.5 hours, while the length of the entire route is approximately 2,500 meters.

Extreme Route – Depending on the variant, they take up to 3 hours, 6 hours or the longest up to 8 hours of underground hiking.

Surface Route – The option is ideal for people who want less physical effort or do not want to visit the underground routes.

Miedzyrzecz

Detailed information about the routes and prices can be found on the official MRU website

Tours & Attractions

Camp Łambinowice

Łambinowice

Łambinowice – updated 31 August 2022

A village in Opole Voivodeship, in south-western Poland which was the location of Camp Lamsdorf (later known as Camp Łambinowice); which served as a prisoner of war camp during the Franco-Prussian War, First World War and Second World War.

Łambinowice

Invasion of Poland

During World War II, the camp reopened on 3rd September 1939 just two days after the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, initially to house Polish prisoners. Throughout the war, more than 300,000 Allied and Soviet prisoners passed through the gates of the camp at Lamsdorf. The base camp was given the designation Stalag VIII-B.

In 1941 a separate camp, Stalag VIII-F was set up close by to house the Soviet prisoners.

In 1943, the Lamsdorf camp was split up, and many of the prisoners were transferred to two new base camps, Stalag VIII-C Sagan and Stalag VIII-D Teschen. The base camp at Lamsdorf was renumbered to Stalag 344.

In October 1944 soldiers and officers were brought to Stalag 344 from the Warsaw Rising, including over 1,000 women. Later, most of the prisoners were transferred to other camps.

Red Army

After the Soviet takeover of the area, on 17th March 1945 the Red Army took the camp over and continued to operate it, this time the institution housed German prisoners of war.

Łambinowice

A transit camp, run by the Ministry of Internal Security and commanded by Czesław Gęborski (later put on trial for crimes against humanity for his actions in the camp), was also created nearby, serving as an internment, labour and resettlement camp for German Silesians, as a “verification” point for Silesians, as well as a camp for former veterans of the Anders' Polish II Corps, whom the new communist authorities of Poland saw as dangerous. Out of 8000 internees, it is estimated that between 1000 and 1,500 German civilians died in the camp, mostly by typhus and maltreatment from camp officials. More than 1,130 names are listed in the cemetery.

Łambinowice Museum

Currently the memory of the inmates is preserved by a large monument devoted to all the victims of the camp, as well as the Central Prisoner of War Museum, the only such institution in Poland and one of very few in the world.

KL Stutthof

KL Stutthof, Sztutowo

KL Stutthof – updated 15 September 2022

This was the first Nazi concentration camp established outside of Germany during World War II, located in a wooded area near a small town called Stutthof (now named Sztutowo) and 34km east of the Free City of Danzig (now Gdansk).

Crematorium

The camp was established directly after the invasion of Poland and was initially designated as a civilian internment camp prior to becoming a labour education camp in November 1941 and finally a regular concentration camp in January 1942.

Before the war even began, the German Selbstschutz (ethnic-German self-protection units) had created lists of people that were to be arrested and detained. The Nazi authorities had also secretly started to review suitable locations to establish concentration camps in the area.

Stutthof

Liberation

Stutthof was the last camp liberated by the Allies on 9th May 1945 and it is estimated that between 63,000 and 65,000 prisoners of the camp and its subcamps died as a result of execution, hunger, disease, extreme labour conditions, and a lack of medical attention. As many as 28,000 of those who died were Jews. Other inmates of Stutthof included citizens from 28 different countries.

The conditions in Stutthof were incredibly harsh, those who were not gassed, shot, clubbed to death, drowned in mud or given a lethal injection of phenol could just as easily die during one of the two typhus epidemics that swept through the camp.

Stutthof

Initially the camp consisted of eight barracks to house the prisoners in addition to buildings for the SS guards and was surrounded by a barbed-wire fence. Stutthof was enlarged in 1943 with a new camp constructed alongside the earlier one containing thirty new barracks, a crematorium and a gas chamber, all surrounded by an electrified barbed-wire fence. Stutthof was included in the “Final Solution” in June 1944 and mass executions began assisted by mobile gas wagons to complement the maximum capacity of the gas chamber.

Many prisoners were used as forced labourers working in an armaments factory located inside the camp next to the prisoner barracks or in a Focke-Wulf aircraft factory, which was constructed nearby.

Camp plan

The evacuation of 50,000 prisoners from the Stutthof camp and subcamps began on 25th January 1945. Thousands died marching in severe winter conditions combined with brutal treatment by SS guards. Around 5,000 were marched to the Baltic Sea coast, forced into the water, and machine-gunned. It has been estimated that around half of the evacuated prisoners, over 25,000, died during the evacuation from Stutthof and its subcamps.

The camp itself was liberated by Soviet forces on 9th May 1945, rescuing about 100 prisoners who had managed to hide.

Museum

Today, there is a museum at Stutthof. During a tour of the camp, you can see a narrow gauge railway line that runs around the camp, the camp commandant’s villa, kennels, the main entry to Stutthof concentration camp, better known as the ‘Death Gate’, guard towers, barracks, gas chamber, crematorium, the original dual-layer barbed-wire fence and various exhibitions.

KL Stutthof Tours & Experiences

Westerplatte

Battle of Westerplatte

Westerplatte – updated 01 September 2022

A peninsula in Gdańsk; famous for the Battle of Westerplatte on 1st September 1939, which was the first engagement between German and Polish forces during the invasion of Poland and thus the beginning and the first battle of World War II.

Monument

Danzig

During the aftermath of World War I and the reestablishment of Polish independence, much of the region surrounding Gdańsk became a part of the Second Polish Republic with the exception of Gdańsk itself, which became an independent city state.

At the time, Gdańsk was known as Danzig and was a historically important port city, which had a majority German population. The independent city state became known as the Free City of Danzig, which was nominally administered by the League of Nations but in reality, it became increasingly allied with Germany.

Westerplatte

League of Nations

In 1921, the League of Nations granted Poland the right to establish a garrison and ammunition depot close to the Free City. Despite some objections from the Free City, the depot was completed in November 1925 and became operational in January 1926. Westerplatte was the chosen location due to its separation from the port of the Free City by the harbour channel.

Permission to establish the garrison by the League of Nations came with a couple of caveats, namely: the garrison’s size could not exceed 88 soldiers and fortifications could not be constructed.

Westerplatte

The establishment of the garrison and depot was always going to act as a tinderbox in the region with the Polish held part of the Westerplatte only separated from the territory of Danzig by a brick wall and relations became further inflamed on 6th March 1933 when the Polish government decided to land a marine battalion at Westerplatte briefly strengthening the garrison there to 200 soldiers.

The purpose of this was purely political in response to recent comments by German politicians about border adjustment and disagreement about management and control over harbour police.

The extra marines were withdrawn on 16th March after protests from the League of Nations, the Free City and Germany and some concessions were made in regard to control over the harbour police.

Over the following years, Poland disrespected the second caveat for establishing a garrison at Westerplatte by constructing some fortifications in the surrounding area. These were not very impressive defences, just five small concrete outposts, trenches, barricades and reinforced buildings. This all led to rising tensions between Poland and Germany and in the spring of 1939, the garrison at Westerplatte was placed on alert.

Invasion of Poland

Germany began its invasion of Poland by dropping bombs on the city of Wieluń in central Poland. Just a few minutes later, the battleship Schleswig-Holstein opened fire on the Polish garrison at Westerplatte. A land battle around the garrison followed between Polish defenders and German Marines.

The Polish repelled two assaults that day using just small arms, mortar and machine-gun fire and over the next few days, they were subjected to multiple bombing raids from Junkers Ju 87 Stukas and shelling from naval and field artillery positions. Eventually on 7th September, the Polish soldiers had no choice but to surrender.

Museum

Today at Westerplatte, visitors can see the ruins of barracks and guardhouses; one of which has been turned into a museum. A Monument to the garrison defenders was unveiled in 1966.

Tours

Riese Complex

Project Riese

Riese Complex – updated 31 August 2022

The Riese Complex was a Nazi Germany construction project from 1943 to 1945 consisting of seven top-secret underground structures located in the Owl Mountains and Książ Castle in Lower Silesia.

Riese

The actual purpose of the project remains unclear and Riese remains one of World War II’s greatest mysteries mainly due to a lack of documentation. Some historians suggest that the structures were planned as a network of underground factories and the tunnels below Książ Castle were to house an HQ element, perhaps an addition to Hitler’s collection of reinforced command centres.

Two things are certain, the size of the project was immense and none of the constructions were finished. Only a few tunnels were reinforced with concrete. Project Riese was abandoned at the initial stage of construction and only 9 km (25,000 m2, 100,000 m3) of tunnels were dug out.

Riese

A massive network of roads, narrow gauge railways and bridges were constructed to connect excavation sites with the nearby railway stations. In total, some 90,000 cubic metres of tunnels were carved into the mountains, the work involved to do this was strenuous and involved cutting down thousands of trees, building dams, digging reservoirs and drainage ditches, blasting rocks with explosives and reinforcing caverns with concrete and steel.

Seven major access points were constructed to separate tunnel systems at Walim-Rzeczka, Włodarz, Jugowice, Soboń, Sokolec, Osówka and Książ Castle.

Książ Castle

POW

To build these giant structures, the Nazis used prisoners of war, prisoners from concentration camps and forced labourers. Many of these workers lost their lives due to disease, malnutrition, exhaustion & dangerous underground works.

Initially, concentration camp prisoners were not used; however a typhus epidemic occurred amongst the workforce in December 1943 significantly slowing down production. Hitler handed over supervision of construction to Organisation Todt, headed by Albert Speer, Hitler’s chief architect and engineer and around 13,000 prisoners of the camps were put to work, many conscripted from Auschwitz concentration camp.

Albert Speer

Interestingly, Albert Speer himself stated that the Riese Project involved some 213,000 cubic metres of tunnels. Today, less than 100,000 are accounted for, suggesting that there are many tunnels and parts of the project still to be discovered. This is technically supported by the existence of narrow-gauge railways and plumbing that appear to lead nowhere, witness accounts also support this account.

Amber Room

113,000 cubic metres of undiscovered tunnels and a lack of documentation as to the purpose of the project has led to numerous conspiracy theories over the years. The favourite is that the tunnels were constructed to hide confiscated Nazi treasure including the famous Amber Room which disappeared from Saint Petersburg and missing gold and art from multiple locations around Europe. An area outside Wałbrzych was the focus of a story about a buried ‘Nazi gold train’ in August 2015 and today, the areas still attracts treasure hunters in search of their fortunes.

Tour to discover the secrets of World War II from Wroclaw

Tour to discover the secrets of World War II from Wroclaw

Let yout guide take you along the track of the biggest secrets of World War II in Lower Silesia. See The Osowka complex, which is a part of Nazi Riese Project and Gross-Rosen concentration camp.

The Osowka complex has been part of an impressive project conducted by Nazi Germany between 1943 and 1945 (code name “Riese”). The mysterious structure called “underground city” still hasn’t revealed all of its secrets. Discover the biggest and the most complex of Hitler’s headquarters in Lower Silesia. This complex is believed to be Adolf Hitler’s secret headquarters built in the Owl Mountains. This part of the tour is with live guide.

Ksiaz Castle is the third largest castle in Poland, placed on a impressive rock cliff by the side of the Pelcznica River. Surrounded by a charming forest which lays 395 meter above sea level, this castle is often called ‘the Pearl of Lower Silesia’. This part of the tour is with audio guide.

Lastly you will visit the Gross-Rosen concentration camp, the biggest Nazi-German concentration camp in Lower Silesia, where inmates worked in particularly harsh conditions in the quarries. The motto of this place was Vernichtung durch Arbeit (Annihilation through work). Around 40.000 prisoners died here: Poles, Jews, Russians, French and Hungarians. This part of the tour is with live guide – Book tickets

Majdanek Concentration Camp

Majdanek

Majdanek Camp – updated 31 August 2022

Majdanek was a Nazi concentration and extermination camp operated by the Schutzstaffel (SS) during the German occupation of Poland in World War II from 1st October 1941 until 22nd July 22, 1944, and was used to kill people on an industrial scale.

Majdanek

Majdanek Concentration Camp was located on the outskirts of the city of Lublin and was initially intended for forced labour. It soon became part of Operation Reinhard, the secretive German plan to exterminate Polish Jews in the General Government district of German-occupied Poland.

The 270-hectare camp was one of the largest of the Nazi run death camps with seven gas chambers, two wooden gallows and 227 structures. Unlike other camps, Majdanek was captured nearly intact due to the rapid advance of the Soviet Army, which did not allow the SS sufficient time to destroy the infrastructure and evidence of war crimes.

Crematorium

Heinrich Himmler

The concept for Majdanek originated with Heinrich Himmler who was Reichsführer of the SS and a leading architect of the Holocaust. Originally, the camp was used as a work camp housing prisoners from 30 different countries and Soviet prisoners of war. The conditions at the camp were horrific, of the 150,000 people who were imprisoned in Majdanek, 80,000 died, including 60,000 Jews. Many succumbed to disease, starvation and the forced labour.

During the beginning of Operation Reinhard, Majdanek was re-purposed as a sorting and storage depot for property and valuables stolen from the victims at the death camps of Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka. The gas chambers were added to the camp in September 1942; at which time, Majdanek began to function as a killing centre.

Majdanek

Victims

The official estimation of the number of victims of Majdanek is 78,000 of those 59,000 were Jews.

In July 1969, on the 25th anniversary of its liberation, a large monument was constructed at the site. It consists of two parts: a large gate monument at the camp’s entrance and a large mausoleum holding ashes of the victims at its opposite end.

One day tour to Majdanek concentration camp and Lublin from Warsaw

One day tour to Majdanek concentration camp and Lublin from Warsaw

Visit a place which is different than Auschwitz or Dachau. Majdanek Concentration Camp is the most complete witness of the terrifying Holocaust. Silent, with no crowds or rush. Chill out at a beautiful old town in Lublin afterward.

After the hotel pick up, you’ll drive with your guide towards Lublin, which is located approx. 190 kilometres from Warsaw (3 hours’ drive). The Majdanek Concentration Camp was a Nazi German concentration and extermination camp established on the outskirts of the city of Lublin during the German occupation of Poland in World War II. The camp, which operated from October 1, 1941, until July 22, 1944, was captured nearly intact because the rapid advance of the Soviet Red Army prevented the SS from destroying most of its infrastructure. Majdanek, also known to the SS as Konzentrationslager Lublin, remains the best-preserved Nazi concentration camp of the Holocaust. Nowadays it’s a quiet and a bit forgotten Museum, which you will visit with our guide.

After the visit in Majdanek guide will take you to the Old Town of Lublin. This city thrived as a centre of trade and commerce due to its strategic location on the route between Vilnius and Kraków; the inhabitants had the privilege of free trade in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Lublin Parliament session of 1569 led to the creation of a real union between the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, thus creating the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Lublin was a royal city of the Crown Kingdom of Poland, and for centuries, the city has been flourishing as a centre of culture and higher learning, with Kraków, Warsaw, Poznań, and Lwów.

Although Lublin was not spared from severe destruction during World War II, its picturesque and historic Old Town has been preserved. The district is one of Poland’s official national historic monuments, as designated May 16, 2007, and tracked by the National Heritage Board of Poland – Book tickets

Visit the Majdanek website.